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Table 1 Comparison of CCSVI studies

From: Vascular pathology in multiple sclerosis: mind boosting or myth busting?

method of detection no. of patients no. of control subjects main findings CCSVI in MS author year ref
TCCS 89 MS 60 alterations of intracranial venous haemodynamics in MS patients + Zamboni et al. 2007 [5]
TCCS-ECD
(+ selective venography)
65 MS
(65 MS)
235
(48)
high association of venous outflow anomalies with MS (OR43). Selective venography: multiple extracranial venous stenoses in all MS but none of the control subjects + Zamboni et al. 2009 [6]
TCCS-ECD 109 MS 177 presence of CCSVI (≥ 2 criteria) in all MS patients but none of the controls + Zamboni et al. 2009 [1]
ECD 70 MS n/a extracranial signs of abnormal venous outflow in 91,4% of MS patients + Simka et al. 2010 [10]
ECD 25 MS 25 extracranial signs of CCSVI (≥ 2 criteria) in 84% of MS patients but none of the controls + Al-Omari and Rousan 2010 [11]
TCCS-ECD 56 MS 20 absence of CCSVI (≥ 2 criteria) in all MS and control subjects - Doepp et al. 2010 [13]
TCCS-ECD 20 MS 20 absence of CCSVI (≥ 2 criteria) in all MS and 95% of controls - Mayer et al. 2011 [14]
TCCS-ECD 289 MS
21 CIS
189 Higher prevalence of CCSVI (≥ 2 criteria) in MS (56,1%) compared to healthy controls but low sensitivity/specificity +/- Zivadinov et al. 2011 [15]
TCCS-ECD
(selective venography)
50 CIS
(7 CIS)
170 Ultrasound criteria for CCSVI in 8 CIS patients, no venous anomalies detected by venography. - Baracchini et al. 2011 [12]
selective venography 31 MS
11 CIS
n/a extracranial venous outflow anomalities infrequent in early MS, more prevalent in late MS +/- Yamout et al. 2010 [22]
selective venography 342 MS n/a venous stenoses detected in 97% of patients previously diagnosed with CCSVI by ultrasound + Ludyga et al. 2010 [23]
  1. Recent studies addressing the presence of chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) by high resolution echocolor Doppler (ECD), transcranial color Doppler sonography (TCCS) and/or selective venography.