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Table 1 Time course after LPS infusion in healthy volunteers

From: Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase activity in experimental human endotoxemia

    Time course after LPS infusion     
Variables Pre-Dose 1 h 1.5 h 2 h 2.5 h 3.5 h 4.5 h 6.5 h 8 h 24 h P-value
HEMODYNAMICS            
SBP (mmHg) 140 ± 14 139 ± 11 152 ± 11 158 ± 18* 151 ± 18 142 ± 22 121 ± 18* 107 ± 11* 104 ± 11* 131 ± 11 <0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 74 ± 10 74 ± 7 80 ± 7 77 ± 12 65 ± 12 61 ± 14* 54 ± 11* 55 ± 8* 55 ± 7* 66 ± 7 <0.0001
MAP (mmHg) 96 ± 11 96 ± 9 104 ±7 104 ± 13 94 ± 14 88 ± 16 77 ± 13* 72 ± 8* 71 ± 7* 88 ± 7 <0.0001
Heart rate (bpm) 61 ± 16 59 ± 11 78 ± 19 78 ± 18 92 ± 12 98 ± 8 101 ± 8 97 ± 11 96 ± 13 81 ± 16 <0.0001
HR/MAP index 0.64 ± 0.11 0.62 ± 0.11 0.75 ± 0.17 0.76 ± 0.22 1.01 ± 0.22* 1.15 ± 0.26* 1.36 ± 0.32* 1.36 ± 0.27* 1.4 ± 0.22* 0.92 ± 0.16* <0.0001
TRYPTOPHAN METABOLISM            
IDOc activity 29.4 ± 6.8 30.5 ± 7.4 30.3 ± 6.2 30.2 ± 6.8 30.2 ± 6.4 28.2 ± 3.6 28.6 ± 7.2 38.1 ± 10.9* 44.0 ± 15.2* 36.3 ± 12.3* <0.0001
ADHESION MOLECULES            
sEsel (ng/ml) 34 ± 16 38 ± 18 35 ± 16 40 ± 18 44 ± 24 82 ± 48 184 ± 90* 289 ± 133* 243 ± 95* 208 ± 81* <0.0001
sVCAM-1 (ng/ml) 307 ± 108 330 ± 120 315 ± 103 326 ± 100 319 ± 109 326 ± 122 403 ± 86* 542 ± 92* 550 ± 91* 553 ± 130* <0.0001
  1. A repeated-measures ANOVA with Dunnett’s test for multiple comparison (two sided) was used to demonstrate statistical changes in clinical and laboratory variables during the time course after endotoxin infusion (n=6). Two-sided p-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. SBP – systolic blood pressure; DBP – diastolic blood pressure; MAP mean arterial blood pressure; HR/MAP index - heart rate/mean arterial pressure index; sEsel – soluble E-selectin; sVCAM-1 – soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; IDO - Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1; *statistically significant vs. Pre-Dose.