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Table 1 Common stroke models used in studies of rehabilitation

From: Animal models of post-ischemic forced use rehabilitation: methods, considerations, and limitations

Stroke model Advantages Disadvantages References
MCAo (indirect ischemia) +Models transient or permanent ischemia; -Large and variable infarcts; [48, 49, 51, 52, 71]
+No craniectomy required; -Collateral damage due to non-targeted vasculature;
+Results in cortical and striatal damage -Feeding problems may occur;
+Widely used and well-characterized -Some mortality
Endothelin-1 (indirect or direct ischemia) +Models transient ischemia; -Requires removal of some skull tissue; [5558, 72]
+Can produce cortical and striatal damage; -Less control over duration of occlusion;
+Ability to control precise variables (e.g. concentration, injection volume, stereotaxic coordinates) resulting in localized lesions; -Mechanism of vessel occlusion not well elucidated
+Can be used to model lacunar infarcts  
+Low mortality rate  
Photothrombosis (indirect or direct ischemia) +Models permanent ischemia; low mortality rate; -Requires skull thinning (direct); [61, 6366]
+Precise control over lesion size and location (direct); -Can only produce cortical damage (direct);
+Full craniectomy is avoided -Collateral damage to non-targeted areas (indirect)
  -No penumbra
Devascularization (direct ischemia) +Models permanent ischemia; -Requires removal of skull tissue; [59, 6769]
+Relatively good control over lesion size location; -Mechanical damage can occur to surrounding tissue and vessels;
  -Can produce surface damage only;
   -No penumbra  
  1. A summary of the advantages and disadvantages of several commonly used models of experimental stroke.