Permanent MCA occlusion leads to significant infarction. The vertical line marking on the animals head shows the line of incision with the horizontal line indicating the level of the zygomatic arch (A). A portion of overlying zygomatic arch was resected, the temporalis muscle was elevated dorsally off the parietal bone (B, red arrow, lateral view). A window was generated in the exposed skull bone surface and the local dura mater exposed (B, black arrow). The proximal MCA was then permanently occluded (C, red arrow shows site of occlusion, ventral view) and resulted in infarction spanning the most caudal aspect of the frontal lobe and significant areas of the temporal lobe and portions of the parietal and occipital lobes (D, lateral view).