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Figure 3 | Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine

Figure 3

From: Rapamycin up-regulation of autophagy reduces infarct size and improves outcomes in both permanent MCAL, and embolic MCAO, murine models of stroke

Figure 3

Rapamycin improves infarct size, survival, and neurological outcomes after eMCAO. The eMCAO study was performed with two independent sets of mice. In the first set there were 6 mice starting in the rapamycin, chloroquine and saline control groups they are included in the data in panels B &D, however, they were not assessed for behavior. The second set of mice had an n = 5 for each group, it also included a rapamycin and chloroquine dual treated group not included in the first set of mice. All of these mice received behavioral assessments and are included in the data for panels B, C &D. A). Representative TCC stained brain sections 48 hours post-eMCAO stroke (n = 10 for rapamycin treatment, n = 7 for vehicle control and chloroquine treatments, and n = 3 for rapamycin and chloroquine dual treatment. These numbers represent the surviving animals at 48 hours out of eleven starting mice for the saline, chloroquine and rapamycin treated groups and five animals for the rapamycin and chloroquine dual treatment group and are the set of mice measured in panels B &D. B). Normalized lesion volume at 48 hours post-eMCAO stroke. C). Quantitation of the Bederson neurological deficit scores by treatment group (n = 5 out of 5 surviving mice for rapamycin treatment, n = 4 out of 5 surviving mice for chloroquine treatment, n = 3 out of 5 surviving animals for vehicle control and rapamycin and chloroquine dual treatment groups). D). 48 hour post-eMCAO survival ratio (number of surviving mice vs total number of eMCAO stroked and treated mice) (n = 11 for vehicle control, chloroquine, and rapamycin treatments, and n = 5 for rapamycin and chloroquine dual treatment). Note tissue drop out in the lesion site is due to the fragility of the tissue, not surgical damage. (* = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.005).

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