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Table 2 Key imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome [13, 9, 2632]

From: Pathophysiology and management of reperfusion injury and hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting

Imaging modality Key role and findings on imaging studies
Transcranial doppler Non-invasive and provides real time information
Detect cerebral embolic signals during CEA
Accurately measures cerebral blood flow velocity
Measurement of cerebral vasoreactivity
Determination of distal internal carotid artery pressure
Changes in mean internal carotid artery volume flow
CT and MRI brain Detection of :
Ischemic changes and focal infarction
White matter edema
Intracerebral hemorrhage
MR perfusion Measurement of cerebral blood flow/volume and inter-hemispheric differences
Contralateral carotid artery stenosis and flow difference
SPECT of the brain Cerebral blood flow measurement
CO2 and acetazolamide studies to determine flow changes
Accurate measurement of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity