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Table 2 Experimental rodent models of closed-head injury

From: Experimental traumatic brain injury

Model Species Injury Strengths Weaknesses
Weight-drop models
Feeney's weight-drop
Shohami's weight-drop
Marmarou's weight-drop
rat [22]
rat [14], mouse [15]
rat [16, 17], mouse [43]
predominantly focal
predominantly focal
predominantly diffuse
injury mechanism and inflicted injury is close to human TBI
severity of injury can be adjusted
well characterized neuroscoring immediately after injury allows randomization
high mortality rate due to apnea and skull fractures
not highly reproducible
FP models
MFP
LFP
rat [46, 47]
rat [48], mouse [49]
mixed
mixed
severity of injury can be adjusted
inflicted injury is highly reproducible within one laboratory
requires craniotomy that may compensate for ICP increases
no immediate post-injury neuroscoring possible
inflicted injury is variable between laboratories
high mortality rate due to apnea
CCI rat [72],
mouse [73]
predominantly focal severity of injury can be adjusted
inflicted injury is highly reproducible
requires craniotomy
no immediate post-injury neuroscoring
Cryogenic brain lesion rat [92], mouse [93] focal severity of injury can be adjusted
inflicted injury is highly reproducible and easily quantifiable
mimics only conditionally human TBI