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Table 1 Overview over studies assessing cortical effects of FES

From: The influence of functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients: a review

  Post stroke Degree of impairment Method Outcome
Hara et al. 2013 [30] > 1 year FM: 24 (11 – 37); > 20° extension of the 3rd finger NIRS ipsilesional SMC ↑
Shin et al. 2008* [33] > 1 year BBT: 21.14 ± 4.09; > 20° extension of the 3rd finger fMRI contralesional SMC ↓
Sasaki et al. 2012 [32] > 1 year FM: 41.8 ± 5.08 fMRI contralesional SMC ↓ (no statistics)
Page et al. 2010 [34] > 6 month FM: 23 (6 – 35); no active extension of fingers or wrist fMRI contralesional SMC ↑
Kimberley et al. 2004* [9] > 6 month > 10° extension of the 2nd finger fMRI contralesional SMC ↑
Wei et al. 2013 [31] 2 – 6 weeks FM: 30 (6-50); no active extension of fingers fMRI ipsilesional SMC ↓
  1. Comparison of studies assessing the cortical effects of FES treatment in relationship to post stroke time point, degree of impairment and methods of evaluation. One can observe a trend towards severe impairment leading to activation of the contralesional site, whereas less impaired patients tend to recruit the ipsilesional site. Studies marked with an asterisk (*) are randomized controlled trials. FM = Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the upper extremity; BBT = Box and Block-Test; NIRS = Near-infrared spectroscopy; fMRI = functional magnetic resonance imaging; SMC = sensorimotor cortex.