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  1. Content type: Meeting report

    The 7th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair was held from May 2nd to May 5th, 2012 in Potsdam, Germany. The symposium, which directly continues the successful Magdeburg meeting series, attr...

    Authors: Johannes Boltze, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Klaus G Reymann, Georg Reiser, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Alexander Kranz and Dominik Michalski

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:14

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  2. Content type: Short report

    Photothrombosis was introduced as a model of ischemic stroke by Watson et al. in 1985. In the present paper, we describe a protocol to induce photothrombotic infarcts in rats.

    Authors: Antje Schmidt, Maike Hoppen, Jan-Kolja Strecker, Kai Diederich, Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz, Matthias Schilling and Jens Minnerup

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:13

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  3. Content type: Short report

    Vascular Early Response Gene (Verge) is an immediate early gene (IEG) that is up-regulated in endothelial cells in response to a number of stressors, including ischemic stroke. Endothelial cell lines that stab...

    Authors: Fudong Liu, L Christine Turtzo, Jun Li, Jean Regard, Paul Worley, Neer Zeevi and Louise D McCullough

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:12

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  4. Content type: Review

    As recently reviewed, 1026 neuroprotective drug candidates in stroke research have all failed on their road towards validation and clinical translation, reasons being quality issues in preclinical research and...

    Authors: Kim A Radermacher, Kirstin Wingler, Pamela Kleikers, Sebastian Altenhöfer, Johannes JR Hermans, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Harald HHW Schmidt

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:11

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  5. Content type: Research

    Tissue type plasminogen activator is the only approved thrombolytic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke. However, it carries the disadvantage of a 10-fold increase in symptomatic and asymptomatic intrac...

    Authors: R Christian Crumrine, Victor J Marder, G McLeod Taylor, Joseph C LaManna, Constantinos P Tsipis, Valery Novokhatny, Philip Scuderi, Stephen R Petteway Jr and Vikram Arora

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:10

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  6. Content type: Research

    Rapid reperfusion following ischemia is the most effective therapy in stroke therapy. However, the success may be compromised by ischemia & reperfusion (I/R) injury and at the human blood–brain barrier (BBB), ...

    Authors: Christian Lindner, Alexander Sigrüner, Franziska Walther, Ulrich Bogdahn, Pierre O Couraud, Gert Schmitz and Felix Schlachetzki

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:9

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  7. Content type: Research

    Severe brain edema is observed in a number of patients suffering from subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Little is known about its pathogenesis and time-course in the first hours after SAH. This study was performe...

    Authors: Thomas Westermaier, Christian Stetter, Furat Raslan, Giles Hamilton Vince and Ralf-Ingo Ernestus

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:8

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  8. Content type: Research

    Since several neuroprotectives failed to reproduce promising preclinical results under clinical conditions, efforts emerged to implement clinically relevant endpoints in animal stroke studies. Thereby, insuffi...

    Authors: Dominik Michalski, Christopher Weise, Carsten Hobohm, Lea Küppers-Tiedt, Johann Pelz, Dietmar Schneider, Johannes Kacza and Wolfgang Härtig

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:7

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  9. Content type: Review

    The method to induce unilateral cryogenic lesions was first described in 1958 by Klatzo. We describe here an adaptation of this model that allows reliable measurement of lesion volume and vasogenic edema by 2,...

    Authors: Furat Raslan, Christiane Albert-Weißenberger, Ralf-Ingo Ernestus, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Anna-Leena Sirén

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:6

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  10. Content type: Research

    Anesthesia is indispensable for in vivo research but has the intrinsic potential to alter study results. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of three common anesthesia protocols on physi...

    Authors: Konstantin Hockel, Raimund Trabold, Karsten Schöller, Elisabeth Török and Nikolaus Plesnila

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:5

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  11. Content type: Research

    Activation of adenosine A1 receptors has neuroprotective effects in animal stroke models. Adenosine levels are regulated by nucleoside transporters. In vitro studies showed that neuron-specific expression of huma...

    Authors: Hanifi Soylu, Dali Zhang, Richard Buist, Melanie Martin, Benedict C Albensi and Fiona E Parkinson

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:4

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  12. Content type: Research

    Hypothermia is neuroprotective in experimental stroke and may extend the so far limited therapeutic time window for thrombolysis. Therefore, hypothermia of 34°C and its effects on delayed thrombolysis includin...

    Authors: Bernd Kallmünzer, Stefan Schwab and Rainer Kollmar

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:3

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  13. Content type: Meeting report

    From November 4th- 6th 2011, the 3rd NEUROWIND e.V. meeting was held in Motzen, Brandenburg, Germany. Like in the previous years, the meeting provided an excellent platform for scientific exchange and the present...

    Authors: Christoph Kleinschnitz, Sven G Meuth, Tim Magnus, Thomas Korn and Ralf A Linker

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:2

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  14. Content type: Review

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a result of an outside force causing immediate mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events. In order to examine injury processes associated with TBI, a n...

    Authors: Christiane Albert-Weißenberger, Csanád Várrallyay, Furat Raslan, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Anna-Leena Sirén

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2012 4:1

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  15. Content type: Research

    Minocycline provides neurovascular protection reducing acute cerebral injury. However, it is unclear whether minocycline is effective in females. We tested minocycline in both sexes and aged animals using a no...

    Authors: Md Nasrul Hoda, Weiguo Li, Ajmal Ahmad, Safia Ogbi, Marina A Zemskova, Maribeth H Johnson, Adviye Ergul, William D Hill, David C Hess and Irina Y Sazonova

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:16

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  16. Content type: Research

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers lower the incidence of ischemic stroke in hypertensive patients and attenuate brain inflammation and injury in animal models. Although AT1R on both blood cells (B...

    Authors: Mutsumi Nagai, Satoshi Terao, Shantel A Vital, Stephen F Rodrigues, Gokhan Yilmaz and D Neil Granger

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:15

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  17. Content type: Review

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, large, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies represent the "summit of evidence". In contrast to specialties like cardiology, the majority of randomized, controlled ...

    Authors: Tim G Kampmeier, Christian Ertmer and Sebastian Rehberg

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:14

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  18. Content type: Research

    To date, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is the only approved drug for ischemic stroke. It is intravenously administered functioning as a thrombolytic agent and is used to obtain reperfusion of...

    Authors: Huong T Le, Aaron C Hirko, Jeffrey S Thinschmidt, Maria Grant, Zhimin Li, Joanna Peris, Michael A King, Jeffrey A Hughes and Sihong Song

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:13

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  19. Content type: Research

    ATP-binding cassette transporters at the blood-brain barrier are actively regulated upon ischemic stroke in a way that impedes the access of pharmacological compounds to the brain tissue. The luminal endotheli...

    Authors: Pauline Patak, Fengyan Jin, Simon T Schäfer, Eric Metzen and Dirk M Hermann

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:12

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  20. Content type: Research

    Inflammatory cascades contribute to secondary injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) via humoral factors and cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Several experimental models were previously developed to analyze po...

    Authors: Arthur Liesz, Moritz Middelhoff, Wei Zhou, Simone Karcher, Sergio Illanes and Roland Veltkamp

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:11

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  21. Content type: Research

    Intra-arterial (IA) administration of rt-PA for ischemic stroke has the potential for greater thrombolytic efficacy, especially for a large thrombus in the M1 or M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA)....

    Authors: R Christian Crumrine, Victor J Marder, G McLeod Taylor, Joseph C LaManna, Constantinos P Tsipis, Philip Scuderi, Stephen R Petteway Jr and Vikram Arora

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:10

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  22. Content type: Research

    Platelets play an important role in ischemic stroke. GPIbα is a major platelet receptor that is critical for platelet adhesion to exposed subendothelial matrix components at sites of vascular damage.

    Authors: Simon F De Meyer, Tobias Schwarz, Daphne Schatzberg and Denisa D Wagner

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:9

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  23. Content type: Review

    Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involv...

    Authors: Silvia Manzanero, Mathias Gelderblom, Tim Magnus and Thiruma V Arumugam

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:8

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  24. Content type: Review

    The investigation of central nervous system vascular changes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is a time-honored concept. Yet, recent reports on changes in venous cerebrospinal outflow, the adv...

    Authors: Anne Waschbisch, Arndt Manzel, Ralf A Linker and De-Hyung Lee

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:7

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  25. Content type: Letter to the Editor

    Despite extensive research efforts in the field of cerebral ischemia, numerous disappointments came from the translational step. Even if experimental studies showed a large number of promising drugs, most of t...

    Authors: Thomas Freret, Pascale Schumann-Bard, Michel Boulouard and Valentine Bouet

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:6

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  26. Content type: Research

    After promising results in experimental stroke, normobaric (NBO) or hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) have recently been discussed as co-medication with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for improving outcome. Thi...

    Authors: Dominik Michalski, Johann Pelz, Christopher Weise, Johannes Kacza, Johannes Boltze, Jens Grosche, Manja Kamprad, Dietmar Schneider, Carsten Hobohm and Wolfgang Härtig

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:5

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  27. Content type: Research

    FTY720, an immunomodulator derived from a fungal metabolite which reduces circulating lymphocyte counts by increasing the homing of lymphocytes to the lymph nodes has recently gained interest in stroke researc...

    Authors: Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Bożena Czech-Zechmeister, Marian Sujak, Christian Foerch, Thomas A Wichelhaus and Josef Pfeilschifter

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2011 3:2

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  28. Content type: Research

    Neuroinflammation evolves as a multi-facetted response to focal cerebral ischemia. It involves activation of resident glia cell populations, recruitment of blood-derived leucocytes as well as humoral responses...

    Authors: Maureen Walberer, Maria A Rueger, Marie-Lune Simard, Beata Emig, Sebastian Jander, Gereon R Fink and Michael Schroeter

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:22

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  29. Content type: Research

    Several proteins are known to be markedly expressed in the brain during cerebral ischemia; however, the changes in protein profiles within the ischemic brain after an ischemic insult have not been fully elucid...

    Authors: Kana Hyakkoku, Junya Hamanaka, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa and Hideaki Hara

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:20

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  30. Content type: Research

    Increased systemic cytokines and elevated brain levels of monoamines, and hydroxyl radical productions are thought to aggravate the conditions of cerebral ischemia and neuronal damage during heat stroke. Dexam...

    Authors: Tsai-Hsiu Yang, Mei-Fen Shih, Yi-Szu Wen, Wen-Yueh Ho, Kuen-Lin Leu, Mei-Ying Wang and Chia-Chyuan Liu

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:19

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  31. Content type: Short report

    A major consequence of stroke is permanent motor disturbance, such as postural imbalance and loss of skilled movement. The degree of neuronal and functional loss and subsequent recovery after stroke is influen...

    Authors: Fabiola CR Zucchi, Norah-Faye Matthies, Noora Badr and Gerlinde A Metz

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:18

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  32. Content type: Research

    Reliable models are essential for translational stroke research to study the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke in an effort to find therapies that may ultimately reduce oedema, infarction and mortality in th...

    Authors: Karsten Overgaard, Rune S Rasmussen and Flemming F Johansen

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:17

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  33. Content type: Review

    Traumatic brain injury, a leading cause of death and disability, is a result of an outside force causing mechanical disruption of brain tissue and delayed pathogenic events which collectively exacerbate the in...

    Authors: Christiane Albert-Weissenberger and Anna-Leena Sirén

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:16

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  34. Content type: Research

    Adiponectin is a hormone produced in and released from adipose cells, which has been shown to have anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory actions in peripheral cells. Two cell surface adiponectin receptors (ADRs)...

    Authors: John Thundyil, Sung-Chun Tang, Eitan Okun, Kausik Shah, Vardan T Karamyan, Yu-I Li, Trent M Woodruff, Stephen M Taylor, Dong-Gyu Jo, Mark P Mattson and Thiruma V Arumugam

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:15

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  35. Content type: Research

    Recently, members of the two-pore domain potassium channel family (K2P channels) could be shown to be involved in mechanisms contributing to neuronal damage after cerebral ischemia. K2P3.1-/- animals showed large...

    Authors: Petra Ehling, Stefan Bittner, Nicole Bobak, Tobias Schwarz, Heinz Wiendl, Thomas Budde, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Sven G Meuth

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:14

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2013 5:3

  36. Content type: Review

    Stroke is a common cause of permanent disability accompanied by devastating impairments for which there is a pressing need for effective treatment. Motor, sensory and cognitive deficits are common following st...

    Authors: Krystal L Schaar, Miranda M Brenneman and Sean I Savitz

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:13

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  37. Content type: Research

    The prostaglandin E2 EP2 receptor has been shown to be important in dictating outcomes in various neuroinflammatory disorders. Here, we investigated the importance of the EP2 receptor in short- and long-term isch...

    Authors: Muzamil Ahmad, Sofiyan Saleem, Zahoor Shah, Takayuki Maruyama, Shuh Narumiya and Sylvain Doré

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:12

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  38. Content type: Research

    Although the therapeutic potential of bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (BMSC) has been demonstrated in different experimental models of ischemic stroke, it remains unclear how stem cells (SC) induce neur...

    Authors: Gokhan Yilmaz, J Steven Alexander, Cigdem Erkuran Yilmaz and D Neil Granger

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:11

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  39. Content type: Research

    Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) has remarkable neuroprotective properties. Due to its proven safety profile, G-CSF is currently used in clinical stroke trials. As neuroprotectants are considered ...

    Authors: Rainer Kollmar, Nils Henninger, Christian Urbanek and Stefan Schwab

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:9

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  40. Content type: Research

    We are currently investigating microglial activation and neuronal precursor cell (NPC) proliferation after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) in rats. This study aimed: (1) to investigate diffe...

    Authors: Jesper Kelsen, Marianne H Larsen, Jens Christian Sørensen, Arne Møller, Jørgen Frøkiær, Søren Nielsen, Jens R Nyengaard, Jens D Mikkelsen and Lars Christian B Rønn

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:8

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  41. Content type: Meeting report

    Report on the 1st scientific meeting of the "Verein zur Forderung des Wissenschaftlichen Nachwuchses in der Neurologie" (NEUROWIND e.V.) held in Mittenwalde/Motzen, Germany, Oct. 30th - Nov. 1st, 2009

    Authors: Tim Magnus, Ralf Linker, Sven G Meuth, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Thomas Korn

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:7

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  42. Content type: Research

    Transgenic mice bred on C57Bl/6 or Sv/129 genetic background are frequently used in stroke research. It is well established that variations in cerebrovascular anatomy and hemodynamics can influence stroke outc...

    Authors: Mirko Pham, Xavier Helluy, Stefan Braeuninger, Peter Jakob, Guido Stoll, Christoph Kleinschnitz and Martin Bendszus

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:6

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  43. Content type: Research

    Anticoagulation is an important means to prevent from acute ischemic stroke but is associated with a significant risk of severe hemorrhages. Previous studies have shown that blood coagulation factor XII (FXII)...

    Authors: Peter Kraft, Tobias Schwarz, Lionel Pochet, Guido Stoll and Christoph Kleinschnitz

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:5

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  44. Content type: Short report

    Permanent middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion (pMCAO) by electrocoagulation is a commonly used model but with potential traumatic lesions. Early MRI monitoring may assess pMCAO for non-specific brain damage...

    Authors: Fabien Chauveau, Samir Moucharrafie, Marlène Wiart, Jean-Christophe Brisset, Yves Berthezène, Norbert Nighoghossian and Tae-Hee Cho

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:4

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  45. Content type: Research

    Increasing evidence suggests that cell therapy improves functional recovery in experimental models of stroke and myocardial infarction. So far only small pilot trials tested the effects of cell therapy in stro...

    Authors: Jens Minnerup, Florian H Seeger, Katharina Kuhnert, Kai Diederich, Matthias Schilling, Stefanie Dimmeler and Wolf-Rüdiger Schäbitz

    Citation: Experimental & Translational Stroke Medicine 2010 2:3

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